Category Archives: Networking

Istio: shared Ingress/AWS ALB, Helm chart with conditions, Istio, and ExternalDNS

27 April 2021
 

 Let’s proceed with our journey with Istio. Previous parts: Istio: an overview and running Service Mesh in Kubernetes Istio: external AWS Application LoadBalancer and Istio Ingress Gateway Besides Istio, in this post, we will also configure ExternalDNS, see the Kubernetes: update AWS Route53 DNS from an Ingress for details. Everything described below is a kind… Read More »

Istio: a cause and solution of the “SQLSTATE Connection refused”

23 April 2021
 

 During starting a pod we got errors “SQLSTATE[HY000] [2002] Connection refused’” in two different applications – a РНР/Yii and NodeJS. In the РHР/Yii it’s coming when we are running a pre-install hook during deployment with Helm and on the MySQL Migration Job execution: Yii Migration Tool (based on Yii v2.0.38)Exception ‘yii\db\Exception’ with message ‘SQLSTATE[HY000] [2002]… Read More »

Istio: external AWS Application LoadBalancer and Istio Ingress Gateway

22 April 2021
 

 In the previous post, Istio: an overview and running Service Mesh in Kubernetes, we started Istion io AWS Elastic Kubernetes Service and got an overview of its main components. The next task is to add an AWS Application Load Balancer (ALB) before Istio Ingress Gateway because Istio Gateway Service with its default type LoadBalancer creates… Read More »

Kubernetes: NodeLocal DNS and the “lookup istiod.istio-system.svc on lookup: no such host” error

19 April 2021
 

 In our Deployments, we are using the NodeLocal DNS as a local DNS cache to reduce requests number to the AWS VPC DNS, see the Kubernetes: load-testing and high-load tuning – problems and solutions for details. Currently, a manifest looks like the next: … dnsPolicy: “None” dnsConfig: nameservers: – 169.254.20.10 … The problem is, that… Read More »

Istio: an overview and running Service Mesh in Kubernetes

11 April 2021
 

 Istio is a Service Mesh solution that allows performing Service Discovery, Load Balancing, traffic control, canary rollouts and blue-green deployments, traffic monitoring between microservices. We will use Istio in our AWS Elastic Kubernetes Service for traffic monitoring, as an API Gateway service, for traffic policies, and for various deployment strategies. In this post, will speak… Read More »

Kubernetes: what is Endpoints

13 March 2021
 

 Usually, we don’t see Endpoints objects when using Kubernetes Services, as they are working under the hood, similarly to ReplicaSets which are “hidden” behind Kubernetes Deployments. Kubernetes Service So, Service is a Kubernetes abstraction that uses labels to chose pods to route traffic to, see the Kubernetes: ClusterIP vs NodePort vs LoadBalancer, Services, and Ingress… Read More »

Kubernetes: update AWS Route53 DNS from an Ingress

22 November 2020
 

 We’d like to have the ability to add a DNS-record on the AWS Route53 when a Kubernetes Ingress resource is deployed and point this record to the URL of an AWS Load Balancer which is created by the ALB Ingress controller. To achieve this, the ExternalDNS can be used which will make API-requests to the… Read More »

Kubernetes: Service, load balancing, kube-proxy, and iptables

1 November 2020
 

 One day I wondered – how is load balancing between pods is working in Kubernetes? I.e. – we have an external Load Balancer. Then a Service. And behind it – Pods. What happens when we are receiving a network packet from the world, and we have a few pods – how the traffic will be… Read More »

Kubernetes: load-testing and high-load tuning – problems and solutions

4 September 2020
 

 Actually, this post was planned as a short note about using NodeAffinity for Kubernetes Pod: But then, as often happens, after starting writing about one thing, I faced another, and then another one, and as a result – I made this long-read post about Kubernetes load-testing. So, I’ve started about NodeAffinity, but then wondered how… Read More »

Kubernetes: ClusterIP vs NodePort vs LoadBalancer, Services, and Ingress – an overview with examples

24 June 2020
 

 For network communications, Kubernetes presents four Service types – ClusterIP (the default one), NodePort, LoadBalancer, and ExternalName, plus the Ingress resources. In this post, we will take a short overview of all of them, and will check how they are working. The documentation is available here – Publishing Services (ServiceTypes). I’m using AWS Elastic Kubernetes… Read More »